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Remote Sensing

Developing/developed cities have resulted in massive anthropogenic modifications of the environment through replacement of natural land cover with concrete, bricks, asphalt and metal. This reduces evapotranspiration, increases the heat storage and alters air movement. Consequently, many urban areas experience temperatures higher than their surrounding rural areas, turning them into Urban Heat Islands (UHI). Hyderabad, a Tier-1 Indian city has experienced significant land use land cover (LULC) changes during the last two decades (2001–2020) owing to rapid urbanization. This study investigates the urban growth and consequent changes in surface UHI (SUHI) intensity over this period using Landsat LULC, and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land surface temperature (LST) and Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI).

The COVID-19 pandemic forced a nationwide lockdown in India for months when close to 1.3 billion people were confined to their homes. An abrupt halt in the majority of the urban activities reduced the generation of anthropogenic heat which often exacerbates the Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect in the urban pockets of the country. We studied the lockdown impact on seven highly populated and polluted mega urban agglomerations across India, namely Delhi, Ahmedabad, Hyderabad, Kolkata, Mumbai, Bengaluru and Chennai, using near-anniversary Landsat 8 data. The results revealed that the lockdowns have improved the air quality and reduced the Land Surface Temperature (LST) and hence the UHI effect over these cities. ...

The prediction of spread patterns of COVID19 virus in India is very difficult due to its versatile demographic as well as meteorological data distribution. Various researchers across the globe have attempted to correlate the interdependency of these data with the spread pattern of COVID19 cases in India. But it is hard to predict the exact pattern, especially the peak in the number of active cases. In the present article we have tried to predict the number of active, recovered, death and total cases of COVID19 in India using generalized SEIR model. In our prediction, the occurrence of peak in the active cases curve has a very close match with the peak in the real data (difference of only one week). Although the number of predicted cases ...

Urban settlements are the socio-economic drivers of human community. However, rapid urban expansion during recent times has a profound effect on regional as well as global rise in temperatures. Remote sensing is a powerful tool to monitor and quantify the expansion of urban built-up area and assess its effects on regional heating. Landsat-derived Land Use Land Cover (LULC) maps have shown a very rapid urbanization in Bhubaneswar, a tier-2 city and the capital of Odisha in the eastern part of India, almost doubling over the last 15 years. Our study on the effects of urbanization reveals that during the period of 2003–2017, the built-up area in the urban district of Bhubaneswar has increased by about 77% at the cost of natural vegetative cover and agricultural/fallow land. This affects the behavior of several climate variables over the urban centers with a clear distinction in these variables observed between the …

Land use and land cover (LULC) change has been shown to have significant effect on climate through various pathways that modulate land surface temperature and rainfall. However, few studies have illustrated such a link over the Indian region using observations. Through a combination of ground, satellite remote sensing and reanalysis products, we investigate the recent changes to land surface temperature in the Eastern state of Odisha between 1981 and 2010 and assess its relation to LULC. Our analysis reveals that the mean temperature of the state has increased by~ 0.3 C during the past three decades with the most accelerated warming (~ 0.9 C) occurring during the recent decade (2001 to 2010). Our study shows that 25 to 50% of this observed overall warming is associated with LULC. Further we observe that the spatial pattern of LULC changes matches well with the independently estimated warming …

Rapid and unplanned urbanization of cities has been a cause of great concern world over. Increased urbanization has immensely altered the Land Use pattern of several Indian cities, thereby altering the physical properties of the land surface. The pronounced effect of urban heat island (UHI) apart from the acute stress on limited natural resources are consequences of this rapid urbanization. UHI effect manifests as unexpected rise in city temperatures when compared to their surrounding areas, thus making them unfriendly for habitation over time. The present work analyses the effect of UHI on Bhubaneswar, ...

The impact of rapid urbanization in cities on their microclimate is at present a great cause of global concern. One of the major consequences is the unexpected rise in temperatures in the cities compared to their surrounding areas, termed as the Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect. Over the past many years, several Indian cities are under severe stress owing to such extreme anomalous changes in their micro-meteorological conditions making them unfriendly for habitation. Presented here is a case study on Bhubaneswar - one such city on the east coast of India undergoing rapid urbanization in recent times ...

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